- Ph.D. in Bioengineering, University of California - Berkeley/San Francisco, 1991
- M.S. in Bioengineering, University of California - Berkeley/San Francisco, 1989
- B.S. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, 1986
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are commonly incurred by recreational and professional women athletes during non-contact jumping maneuvers in sports like basketball and volleyball, where incidences of ACL injury is more frequent to females compared to males. What remains a numerical challenge is in vivo calculation of ACL strain and internal force. This study investigated effects of increasing stop-jump height on neuromuscular and bio-mechanical properties of knee and ACL, when performed by young female recreational athletes. The underlying hypothesis is increasing stop-jump (platform) height increases knee valgus angles and external moments which also increases ACL strain and internal force. Using numerical analysis tools comprised of Inverse Kinematics, Computed Muscle Control and Forward Dynamics, a novel approach is presented for computing ACL strain and internal force based on (1) knee joint kinematics and (2) optimization of muscle activation, with ACL insertion into musculoskeletal model. Results showed increases in knee valgus external moments and angles with increasing stop-jump height. Increase in stop-jump height from 30 to 50 cm lead to increase in average peak valgus external moment from 40.5 3.2 to 43.2 3.7 Nm which was co-incidental with increase in average peak ACL strain, from 9.3 3.1 to 13.7 1.1%, and average peak ACL internal force, from 1056.1 71.4 to 1165.4 123.8 N for the right side with comparable increases in the left. In effect this study demonstrates a technique for estimating dynamic changes to knee and ACL variables by conducting musculoskeletal simulation on motion analysis data, collected from actual stop-jump tasks performed by young recreational women athletes. 2012 Biomedical Engineering Society.