Gerold A. Willing is an Associate Professor in the Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Louisville. Dr. Willing's expertise lies in the development of complex fluid systems for practical applications and characterization of their stability. He is the first person to directly measure the interaction forces in complex fluids with a bimodal particle size distribution using the Atomic Force Microscope. He received a BS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a PhD in Chemical Engineering from Auburn University. Prior to joining UofL, he spent 3 years at Argonne National Laboratory as a Postdoctoral Research Associate.
- Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, 2001
- B.E. in Chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1993
Aqueous chloramine diffusion into styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber was analyzed using approximate analytical and numerical solutions of Fick's second law of diffusion to develop long-term mass intake prediction curves. Diffusion coefficients were calculated for 1 mg/L chloramine concentration at three temperatures (23, 45, and 70 degrees C) and also for 23 degrees C at three chloramirte concentrations (1, 30, and 60 mg/L). The reasonableness of using increased temperature and/or chloramine concentration to accelerate the diffusion process to obtain long-term information was discussed. For 1 mg/L chloramine concentration, the activation energy for the diffusion of chloramines into SBR and natural rubber were computed to be 51.13 and 77.29 kJ/mol, respectively. Also, concentration profiles were developed to understand the extent of penetration through the elastomer thickness over time and temperature. Considering the reports of elastomeric compound failure in chloramine disinfectant water distribution systems because of swelling, this study will be helpful in understanding the performance of the elastomeric compounds in the system.