Dr. Travis L. Ross
Travis Ross is the Director of Technology Solutions at the University of Louisville J.B. Speed School of Engineering. He has been with the university for six years and his previous positions include the Director of Analytics for the Speed School and Director of Advising Technology for the university. His current professional interests include academic and research techologies, student success, leadership, and motivational technology with a focus on game design in everyday life. He recieved a PhD from Indiana University where his work examined of human motivation, collective behavior, game design, governance and computer-mediated societies. His work is published in numerous books and journals. He is also an experienced farmer, hortoculturalist and co-owner of New Blooms Nursery in New Albany, Indiana with his wife and family.
Over the course of the last decade, many games have shifted from single player to shared social experiences. Yet, most research examining antisocial behavior has focused on coded content and ignored the influence of other players. This paper examines the influence of the behavior of another player on strategy selection, and the formation of expectations, enjoyment, frustration, and state aggression. It reports an experiment examining antisocial griefing behavior in the multiplayer game Neverwinter Nights, where observational learning, revenge seeking, and expectation formation are tested. The results show that (a) the first encounter that a player has in a game shapes both behavior and expectations;(b) environments that facilitate expectation of cooperation will lead to retaliation against players who grief, whereas environments that facilitate expectations of griefing will increase the frequency of griefing, but not …